A geologic time scale 2004 by Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith

By Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith

Half I. advent: 1. advent F. M. Gradstein; 2. Chronostratigraphy - linking time and rock F. M. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; half II. options and strategies: three. Biostratigraphy F. M. Gradstein, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; four. Earth's orbital parameters and cycle stratigraphy L. A. Hinnov; five. The geomagnetic polarity time scale J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; 6. Radiogenic isotope geochronology M. Villeneuve; 7. strong isotopes J. M. McArthur and R. J. Howarth; eight. Geomathematics F. P. Agterberg; half III. Geologic classes: nine. The Precambrian: the Archaen and Proterozoic eons L. J. Robb, A. H. Knoll, ok. A. Plumb, G. A. Shields, H. Strauss and J. Veizer; 10. towards a 'natural' Precambrian time scale W. Bleeker; eleven. The Cambrian interval J. H. Shergold and R. A. Cooper; 12. The Ordovician interval R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; thirteen. The Silurian interval M. J. Melchin, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; 14. The Devonian interval M. R. condo and F. M. Gradstein; 15. The Carboniferous interval V. Davydov, B. R. Wardlaw and F. M. Gradstein; sixteen. The Permian interval B. R. Wardlaw, V. Davydov and F. M. Gradstein; 17. The Triassic interval J. G. Ogg; 18. The Jurassic interval J. G. Ogg; 19. The Cretaceous interval J. G. Ogg, F. P. Agterberg and F. M. Gradstein; 20. The Paleogene interval H. P. Luterbacher, J. R. Ali, H. Brinkhuis, F. M. Gradstein, J. J. Hooker, S. Monechi, J. G. Ogg, J. Powell, U. Rohl, A. Sanfilippo, and B. Schmitz; 21. The Neogene interval L. Lourens, F. Hilgen, N. J. Shackleton, J. Laskar and D. Wilson; 22. The Pleistocene and Holocene epochs P. Gibbard and T. van Kolfschoten; half IV. precis: 23. development and precis of the geologic time scale F. M.. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; Appendices; Bibliography; Stratigraphic index; basic index

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1982) Kulp (1961) NDS82 Odin (1982) DNAG83 Kent and Gradstein (1983) EX88 Haq et al. (1987) GTS89 Harland et al. (1990) SEPM95 Gradstein et al. 5 70 70 Maastricht. 70 72 Maastricht. Maastricht. Maastricht. 4 Maastricht. Maastricht. Maastricht. Maastricht. 5 Turonian 90 Turonian 91 Cretaceous 90 Cenoman. 5 Albian Albian 108 Aptian Jurassic Aptian 124 135 131 130±3 Valanginian Valanginian 138 140 131 Late Jurassic 138 Berriasian Berriasian 144 144 145 Tithonian 150 150 150±3 Kim. Kim. 166 Bajoc.

In 1960, Holmes compiled a revised version of the ageversus-thickness scale (Fig. 4). Compared with the initial 1913 scale, the projected durations of the Jurassic and Permian are more or less doubled, the Triassic and Carboniferous are extended about 50%, and the Cambrian gains 20 myr at the expense of the Ordovician. 2 Phanerozoic radiometric databases, statistical scales, and compilations W. B. Harland and E. H. Francis as part of a Phanerozoic time scale symposium coordinated a systematic, numbered radiometric database with critical evaluations.

In general, the Cande and Kent (1995) geomagnetic polarity time scale for the Late Neogene is slightly too young. , 2001) and refined estimates of spreading rates for the South Atlantic profile (see Chapter 5). If the current pace of cycle stratigraphy applications continues, it is quite likely that tuning to astronomical cycles will enable detailed scaling of many more segments of the geologic time scale within the next decade. 2 • Chronostratigraphy: linking time and rock .  .        , .

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