A New Aristotle Reader by J. L. Ackrill

By J. L. Ackrill

In one quantity that may be of carrier to philosophy scholars of all degrees and to their academics, this reader offers smooth, actual translations of the texts beneficial for a cautious research of so much features of Aristotle's philosophy. In deciding upon the texts Professor J. L. Ackrill has drawn on his wide adventure of educating graduate periods, and his selection displays problems with present philosophical curiosity in addition to the perennial issues. in simple terms fresh translations which in attaining a excessive point of accuracy were selected; the purpose is to put the Greekless reader, as approximately as attainable, within the place of a reader of Greek. As an relief to check, Professor Ackrill offers a beneficial advisor to the main themes lined. The advisor supplies references to the works or passages inside the reader, and indication in their interrelations, and present bibliography.

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30 For only they, of things predicated, reveal the primary substance. For if one is to say of the individual man what he is, it will be in place to give the species or the genus (though more informative to give man than animal); but to give any of the other things would be out of 35 place—for example, to say ‘white’ or ‘runs’ or anything like that. So it is reasonable that these should be the only other things called substances. Further, it is because the primary substances are subjects 3a for everything else that they are called substances most strictly.

But if one name is given to two things which do not make up one thing, there is not a single affirmation. Suppose, for example, that one 20 gave the name ‘cloak’ to horse and man; ‘a cloak is white’ would not be a single affirmation. For to say this is no different from saying ‘a horse and a man is white’, and this is no different from saying ‘a horse is white and a man is white’. So if this last signifies more than one thing 25 and is more than one affirmation, clearly the first also signifies either more than one thing or nothing (because no man is a horse).

For falsity and truth have to do with combination and separation. Thus 15 names and verbs by themselves—for instance ‘man’ or ‘white’ when nothing further is added—are like the thoughts that are without combination and separation; for so far they are neither true nor false. A sign of this is that even ‘goat-stag’ signifies something but not, as yet, anything true or false—unless ‘is’ or ‘is not’ is added (either simply or with reference to time). CHAPTER 2 A name is a spoken sound significant by convention, without time, 20 none of whose parts is significant in separation.

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