By Mueni wa Muiu, Guy Martin
This booklet takes a multidisciplinary and long term ancient viewpoint to review the evolution of African political structures and associations. It ranges from Antiquity (Egypt, Kush, and Axum) to the current, with a selected specialise in the destruction of those political platforms and associations via successive exogenous tactics, together with the Atlantic slave alternate, imperialism, colonialism, and neo-colonialism or globalization.
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Extra resources for A New Paradigm of the African State: Fundi wa Afrika
The vizier was a prime minister responsible for public order who was likened to the god Thoth, and who was the supreme legal authority after the pharaoh and the minister of justice. Some viziers dominated political life. In the new kingdom, in addition to other counselors, there were two viziers who advised the king. Pharaonic law was individualistic in the sense that all people were equal before the law. Women had the same rights to property and judicial relief as men. ”5 Democracy was understood as the equality of men before both the gods and the rulers.
After the death of Rameses’ successor, the power and influence of Egypt again waned. 4 The first pharaoh (dynasty) ruled in 3000 BCE after Neolithic peasants had settled as agriculturalists. By the Fourth Dynasty, Egypt was a centralized monarchy. It relied on the Nile for agriculture and developed dyke construction to prevent floods. The population increased as a result of bountiful food production. All foreign trade, mining, and quarrying—as well as production and distribution—activities were controlled by the state.
This was a period of state consolidation through increased control over conquered territories. In the fifth century BCE, the powers of the king declined and were progressively eclipsed by the rise of Siefets (judge and governor). This change was triggered by developments in Greece and Rome, where Siefets were prominent. The power of the wealthy aristocracy increased during this period. The aristocracy appointed a council of state, as well as a court that was made up of one hundred members who controlled the state.