Access to Religion and Philosophy. Philosophy of Religion by Peter Cole

By Peter Cole

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Extra resources for Access to Religion and Philosophy. Philosophy of Religion

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To put it another way, if God exists He will have necessary existence, but it is not a contradiction to say that such a concept does not have an actuality. ’ HUME Key question Are the two processes of concept and actuality related? However much our concept of an object may contain, we must go outside of it to determine whether or not it exists. We cannot define something into existence – even if it has all the perfections we can imagine. As you may have guessed, this view has not gone unchallenged.

The ontological argument appears in The Proslogion. ’ However, there is much debate about whether Anselm was aiming his argument at believers or non-believers. Anselm recounts how he came to the argument. He prayed for a single, short argument by which to prove almost everything about God. ‘Suddenly one night during matins, the grace of God illuminated his heart. ’ What he had received was the ontological proof. Key words Necessary being: a being whose non-existence would be a selfcontradiction.

What is potentially x is not actually x, yet the actually x can only be produced by something that is actually x. Whatever is moved (changed) must be moved (changed) by another, which itself was moved (changed). If we trace back we must arrive at a first mover, moved by no other. This is what we understand to be God. Expressed formally: ● ● Key question Did Aquinas argue that the universe had to have a beginning? Key people Richard Swinburne (b 1934) is an Oxford professor of philosophy who has devoted himself to promoting arguments for theism.

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