By R. C. Newell (Eds.)
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Additional info for Adaptation to Environment. Essays on the Physiology of Marine Animals
The flatter Patella aspera and small P. vulgata of the lower shore thus lost water at a faster rate than high level P. vulgata (see also p. 24). The tolerance of water loss by high and low level Patella vulgata and by the lower shore P. 3. 3 VULGATA T H E T O L E R A N C E O F W A T E R LOSS IN T W O P O P U L A T I O N S O F T H E LIMPET A N D IN T H E L O W E R S H O R E P. ASPERA. PATELLA N O T E T H A T B O T H I N T R A - A S WELL A S INTERSPECIFIC D I F F E R E N C E S O C C U R IN T H E T O L E R A N C E O F W A T E R LOSS ( A F T E R D A V I E S , 1 9 6 9 ) % weight loss which all survive % weight loss for 5 0 % mortality % weight loss for 1 0 0 % mortality High level P.
A rather similar treatment of the data has been used by Haefner (1969; 1970) on the shrimp Crangon septemspinosa, as well as by Cain (1973) on the embryo and larvae of the clam Rangia cuneata and by Kennedy et al. (1974) on embryos and larvae of the bivalve Mulinia. Haefner (1969; 1970) studied the combined effects of temperature and salinity on the survival of Crangon septemspinosa. 22 Predicted effects of temperature and salinity on percentage mortality ofovigerous shrimps (Crangon septemspinosa) in (a) aerated seawater containing 6-12 ppm 0 2 and (b) poorly oxygenated seawater containing 2-3 ppm 02.
When the tide ebbs there is a loss of food availability to both suspension feeders and many browsing organisms, for browsing cannot take place under conditions of desiccation. There is also an increase of environmental temperature in many intertidal habitats and this would be expected to increase the metabolic energy losses just at the time when energy input is minimal. Under these circumstances we can envisage at least three strategies for the maintenance of energy balance. There may be: (a) An increase of energy input during favourable parts of the tidal cycle to compensate for reduced food availability at other times, (b) The use of aerobic pathways for converting assimilated food into energy rich phosphates.