Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis and Treatments by Marisa R. Boyd

By Marisa R. Boyd

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Cortex,44, 345-349. , and Roberston, C. (2007). Automatic and controlled uses of memory in Alzheimer's disease. Cortex, 43, 524-530. J. (1991). Adult age differences in direct and indirect tests of memory. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 46, 22-30. Huppert, F. (1994). Memory function in dementia and normal aging - dimension or dichotomy? In F. Huppert, C. Brayne, and D. ), Dementia and Normal Aging (pp. 291-330). Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. L. (1991). A process dissociation framework: separating automatic from intentional uses of memory.

Neuroimaging studies show greater areas of atrophy and decreased brain activity in the parietal lobes, precuneus regions, and posterior cingulate corticies in early onset patients compared to greater temporal lobe and hippocampal atrophy in those with later onset Alzheimer‘s disease. Patients with very late onset of Alzheimer‘s disease (age > 84 years) present with greater deficit of frontal lobe functions, consistent with the hypothesis of increased vulnerability of the frontal lobes and frontal-subcortical circuits to decline with age.

Typical Clinical and Neuropsychological Features of Alzheimer’s Disease Episodic memory deficits are often the first presenting symptom in patients with AD and can precede other clinical signs and symptoms of dementia by many years [3]. Impairment in visuospatial functions may also occur relatively early in the disease course, including difficulties in becoming oriented to the surrounding environment as well as problems drawing and copying simple and complex figures [3]. Other symptoms that may develop early in the disease course include visual agnosia which manifests as difficulty recognizing objects, impairment of frontal-executive functions such as planning and goal-oriented behavior as well as understanding abstract concepts and impaired judgment and reasoning abilities [3].

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