By Wenbing Zhao
"This ebook covers the main crucial strategies for designing and construction liable allotted platforms. rather than overlaying a wide diversity of study works for every dependability method, the publication focuses just a chosen few (usually the main seminal works, the main useful techniques, or the 1st booklet of every procedure) are incorporated and defined extensive, often with a accomplished set of examples. The aim is to dissect each one process completely in order that readers who're no longer accustomed to in charge dispensed computing can truly seize the process after learning the booklet. The publication comprises 8 chapters. the 1st bankruptcy introduces the elemental suggestions and terminologies of liable allotted computing, and likewise offer an summary of the first skill for attaining dependability. the second one bankruptcy describes intimately the checkpointing and logging mechanisms, that are the main standard capability to accomplish constrained measure of fault tolerance. Such mechanisms additionally function the root for extra refined dependability recommendations. bankruptcy 3 covers the works on recovery-oriented computing, which specialise in the sensible options that decrease the fault detection and restoration occasions for Internet-based functions. bankruptcy 4 outlines the replication strategies for info and repair fault tolerance. This bankruptcy additionally will pay specific awareness to confident replication and the CAP theorem. bankruptcy 5 explains a number of seminal works on workforce communique platforms. bankruptcy six introduces the dispensed consensus challenge and covers a couple of Paxos relatives algorithms intensive. bankruptcy seven introduces the Byzantine generals challenge and its most up-to-date strategies, together with the seminal useful Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) set of rules and a few its derivatives. the ultimate bankruptcy covers the most recent study effects on application-aware Byzantine fault tolerance, that is an immense leap forward in the direction of functional use of Byzantine fault tolerance techniques"-- Read more...
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Extra info for Building dependable distributed systems
Systems that are used to control operations that may cause catastrophic consequences, such as nuclear power plants, or endanger human lives, Introduction to Dependable Distributed Computing 9 such as hospital operation rooms, must bear the safety attribute. The safety attribute is not important for systems that are not operating in such environments, such as for e-commerce. 2 Means to Achieve Dependability There are two primary approaches to improving the dependability of distributed systems: (1) fault avoidance: build and use high quality software components and hardware that are less prone to failures; (2) fault detection and diagnosis: while crash faults are trivial to detect, components in a practical system might fail in various ways other than crash, and if not detected, the integrity of the system cannot be guaranteed; and (3) fault tolerance: a system is able to recover from various faults without service interruption if the system employs sufﬁcient redundancy so that the system can mask the failures of a portion of its components, or with minimum service interruption if the system uses less costly dependability means such as logging and checkpointing.
Unfortunately, C2,1 is not consistent with C1,0 because it recorded the receiving of m4 while C1,0 does not reﬂect the sending of m4 . This means P2 would have to rollback to C2,0 . This in turn would make it impossible to use any of the two checkpoints, C3,1 or C3,0 , at P3 . This would result in P3 rolling back to its initial state. The rollback of P3 to its initial state would cause the invalidation of C2,0 at P2 because it reﬂects the state change Logging and Checkpointing 23 resulted from the receiving of m1 , which is not reﬂected in the initial state of P3 .
This objective can be achieved by employing standard software engineering practices, for example: More rigorous software design using techniques such as formal methods. Formal methods mandate the use of formal language to facilitate the validation of a speciﬁcation. More rigorous software testing to identify and remove software bugs due to remnant design deﬁciency and introduced during implementation. For some applications, it may be impractical to employ formal methods, in which case, it is wise to design for testability , for example, by extensively use unit testing that is available in many modern programming languages such as Java and C#.