Chairman Mao Tse-Tung's Important Talks with Guests from by Mao Tse-Tung

By Mao Tse-Tung

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S. 2002. Introduction: Conceptualising Ownership in Aid Relations. In Aid Relationships in Asia: Exploring Ownership in Japanese and Nordic Aid, eds. A. M. Jerve, Y. Shimomura, and A. S. Hansen. London, Palgrave Macmillan, 3–21. Johnson, O. 2005. Country Ownership of Reform Programs and the Implications for Conditionality. G24 Discussion Paper Series, No. 35. org. Johnson, J. and Wasty, S. 1993. Borrower Ownership of Adjustment Programs and the Political Economy of Reform. World Bank Discussions Paper 199.

Ownership understood from the perspective of sovereignty thus means allowing space for domestic political processes: for struggles within recipient societies to define the national interest and for recipients to make their own policy choices and to draw their own lessons from their experiences, respecting that their own perceptions of their own problems and solutions are legitimate. In defining ownership as the degree of government control over the policy agenda, it necessarily follows that some governments will get it right and some will get it wrong, but importantly these outcomes are not predetermined or fixed but rather change over time.

In the aid literature, rational choice frameworks have been extremely influential. They typically start with one key assertion about the preferences of African rulers: that their overriding preference is the maintenance of their own rule. Economic and social policy decisions are then assumed to reflect calculations on the part of rulers, not about which policy will benefit most people or facilitate economic development, but about their impacts on the balance of forces among politically effective interest groups in the country (see Bates 1981; Bates and Krueger 1993).

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