By Ewa Fratczak, Livia Sz. Oláh
This quantity addresses the connection among childbearing, paid paintings and work-life stability guidelines throughout Europe within the twenty first century, illuminating the uncertainty and danger relating to insecure labour strength attachment, the incoherence of women's and men's entry to schooling and employment and the unequal proportion of household obligations.
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Additional resources for Childbearing, Women’s Employment and Work-Life Balance Policies in Contemporary Europe
The concept of ideal family size, in addition, reflects social norms (Livi-Bacci, 2001; Hagewen and Morgan, 2005). Intentions, in contrast, show the evaluation of own situation when considering the feasibility to realise a desire in question. , 2005). This can explain possible differences between one’s childbearing Susanne Fahlén & Livia Sz. Oláh 31 intentions and preferences, especially when socio-economic and/or biological constraints are taken into account. , 1999), the latter often seen as based on rational choice, calculating costs and benefits.
Hence, when the future seems especially uncertain due to insecure employment prospects, people are likely instead of family building to opt for strengthening their labour market position and reduce the risk of economic hardship, thus postponing or perhaps even foregoing childbearing altogether (McDonald, 2002). , 2009 for an overview of earlier studies), addressing the role of intentions as a key issue in the behavioural decision-making process. Indeed, these theories (and studies) have enhanced our understanding in general of the relationship between attitudes, norms, intentions and behaviour, that is, about the processes of how attitudes and norms about childbearing influence the intentions to become a parent or whether to have further children.
In the past decade in Sweden, Susanne Fahlén & Livia Sz. Oláh 35 about 40 per cent of women and somewhat more than 10 per cent of men of working age have been employed part-time. For those below age 25, the proportions varied at 55–60 per cent among women and 27–35 per cent among men in this period (Eurostat, 2011). However, parttime employment in Sweden, unlike in several European countries does not necessarily mean a marginalised labour market position, often not covered by social benefit systems (Fagan, 2004).