By Charles W. Finkl
This publication covers the gamut of coastal dangers that end result from temporary low-frequency occasions and feature high-magnitude and far-reaching affects on coastal zones internationally. a lot of the world’s inhabitants now lives in low-lying coastal zones which are inherently liable to common dangers resembling flooding from hurricanes, tropical storms and northeastern typhoon surges; coastline (beach and dune) erosion; cliff and bluff mess ups; and saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers used for ingesting water offers. as well as the standard diversity of hydrometeorological failures in coastal zones, this publication covers tsunami affects and caution structures in addition to international views of sea-level upward thrust affects and human perceptions of capability vulnerabilities due to rip currents that reason many drownings every year on shores. this day, using numerical versions that aid are expecting vulnerabilities and supply a foundation for shore security measures is necessary in glossy medical and engineering platforms. ultimate issues concentrate on human activities within the type of the urbanization and industrialization of the coast, shore safeguard measures, and point out how environmental degradation round coastal conurbations exacerbates the potential of undesirable affects. techniques for environmental administration in coastal zones, from low-lying wetlands to excessive cliffs and rocky promontories, are highlighted as a method of dwelling in concord with Nature and never attempting to overcome it.
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Additional info for Coastal Hazards
Investment in coastal infrastructure requires protective measures to ensure against land loss and temporary flooding due to super-elevations of sea level by storm surges associated with hurricanes. Studies by Esteves and Finkl (1998) show that about 75% of the Florida shoreline is sandy beaches. Statewide, 61% of beaches front developed shorelines. Overall, with approximately 82% of Florida’s sandy beaches in either a state of accretion or in a stable phase, about 6% of the total beach length is viewed as being eroded (Esteves and Finkl 1998) and about 10% has been designated as critically eroded (cf.
These groundwaters mingle with coastal marine waters via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to constitute a severe hazard to the health and wellbeing of coral reefs and aquatic life (see subsequent discussion). Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) threatens sustainability of the entire southeast Florida coast because it contaminates coastal waters with high levels of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Intensive agriculture and pesticide use, the origin of much of this contamination, constitute an on-going coastal hazard that worsens incrementally with time.
Water control facilities installed after the 1947 hurricane resulted in improved handling of water in south Florida on a quantity basis; hazardous floods and droughts were successfully mitigated. Because the water control system was not designed initially with water quality issues in mind, modification of water quality and attendant ecological degradations began long before the C & SF Project was constructed. For the past century, the Everglades were beset by a series of hazards as the wetlands were sequentially drained, diked, plowed, and invaded by exotic species.