Combined-cycle gas & steam turbine power plants by Rolf Bachmann, Henrik Nielsen, Judy Warner, Rolf Kehlhofer

By Rolf Bachmann, Henrik Nielsen, Judy Warner, Rolf Kehlhofer

This publication is an efficient evaluate of the mixed cycle approach. It saves the equations for the tip of the e-book and spends many of the textual content discussing thoughts. The case stories on the finish of the e-book are relatively attention-grabbing. The part on built-in Gasification and mixed Cycle used to be valuable since it mentioned transformations in layout concept for every of the key brands. regrettably the former chapters didn't spend as a lot time discussing changes in producer designs.

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However, in practical three-phase power systems, there are a number of sources of unbalance which can be divided into internal and external sources. Internal sources of unbalance are those due to the inherent small differences in the phase impedances and susceptances of three-phase power plant such as overhead lines and transformers. Three-phase generators, however, produce, by design, a balanced set of three-phase voltages. External sources of unbalance are those that impose an unbalanced condition on the power system network such as the connection of unbalanced three-phase loads, or single-phase loads, to a three-phase power system, the occurrence of unbalanced short-circuit and open-circuit faults.

4 (a) Asymmetrical short-circuit current waveform and current interruption and (b) modern 420 kV SF6 circuit breaker AA = ‘Initial peak’ short-circuit current at t = tA and is denoted ip . ip is also termed ‘½ cycle peak’ current, ‘peak make’ current or ‘making’ current. AA = AA + A A where AA = magnitude of dc current component at t = tA and A A = peak ac current component at t = tA and is equal to √ 2 × rms current at t = tA . BB = Peak short-circuit current at t = tB and is denoted ib . BB = BB + B B where BB = magnitude of dc current component√ at t = tB and B B = peak ac current component at t = tB and is equal to 2 × Ib , where Ib is rms current at t = tB .

Because the shortcircuit duration, including short circuits cleared by protection in back-up clearance times, is quite short, the heat loss from conductors during the short circuit is usually very low. Generally, both ac and dc components of the short-circuit current contribute to the thermal heating of conductors. Extreme values of the time constant of the dc short-circuit current component may be up to 150 ms so that by 500 ms from the instant of short circuit, the dc component is nearly vanished and nearly all its generated heat will have dissipated by around 1 s.

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