By Kenneth C. Budka
This booklet offers an application-centric method of the advance of shrewdpermanent grid verbal exchange structure. The assurance comprises in-depth stories of such state-of-the-art purposes as complex metering infrastructure, distribution automation, call for reaction and synchrophasors. good points: examines various intriguing application functions made attainable via clever grid evolution; describes the core-edge community structure for shrewdpermanent grids, introducing the concept that of WANs and lovers; explains how the community layout paradigm for shrewdpermanent grids differs from that for extra demonstrated facts networks, and discusses community safeguard in clever grids; presents an outline of communique community applied sciences for WANs and fanatics, overlaying OPGW, PLC, and LTE and MPLS know-how; investigates safe data-centric facts administration and information analytics for clever grids; discusses the transformation of a community from traditional modes of software operation to an built-in community according to the clever grid structure framework.
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Additional resources for Communication Networks for Smart Grids: Making Smart Grid Real
Similarly, V D V C j0, since cosine and sine of angle 0 are equal to 1 and 0, respectively. 4) As before, if we integrate p(t) over one period T, the second term disappears since it is just a sinusoid integrated over twice its period which is (T/2) D 1/(2f ). 5) Thus, the power is equal to the product of the voltage across the load, the current through the load, and the cosine of the phase angle between them. The term cos' is called the power factor of the load. Even though the power factor, thus defined, is based on the example with the current phasor lagging behind the voltage phasor, the definition applies even if the current leads the voltage, in which case the power factor is called the leading power factor.
7. Networking requirements for a utility network are different in many respects to those for NSP networks. NSP networks are primarily designed to support their customers’ multimedia applications, while the Smart Grid network must support mission-critical applications like SCADA, teleprotection, and synchrophasors in addition to many other applications. Reliability, security, and performance requirements for Smart Grid networks are more stringent than the corresponding requirements for enterprise networks.
Traditional bulk generation sources (thermal, large hydroelectric, and nuclear) connect directly into the transmission system. Large-capacity alternate sources of energy (such as large wind farms) may also connect into the transmission system directly. Unless stated otherwise, we assume that DG sources connect into the distribution system (either as stand-alone sources of energy or collocated with and owned by consumers). 3 Transmission Systems Referring back to the idealized illustration (Fig.