By T. & S Kitchen
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Additional info for Crime Prevention in the Built Enviroment
1980). Despite its largely residential origin, its applications have been extended across many types of land uses, although there is evidence that it is less effective outside of that realm (Murray, 1994). The perception and power of ownership: Pruitt-Igoe and Carr Square Village An architect, planner and critical observer of human behaviour, Newman was fascinated by the power and energy inherent in the command of places by users, even when they were not owners. His fundamental concept is intuitively appealing: places and spaces can be designed and built so as to increase residents’ feelings of ownership and control.
Jane Jacobs’s (1961) reﬂections about the importance of vibrant street life, diversity of street uses and the identiﬁcation of clear boundaries between public and private spaces also signiﬁcantly inﬂuenced Newman’s early thinking and philosophy. Indeed, defensible space has been called an operationalisation of Jacobs’s themes (Jeffrey and Zahm, 1993). 2 Dramatic evidence to support defensible space theory came from observations of public housing authorities in St Louis and New York City. Of particular early interest to Newman was the life cycle of a 2,870-unit high-rise complex called Pruitt-Igoe, constructed in an inner-city St Louis neighbourhood in 1956.
European Crime Prevention Network, 2005, pp. 46, 47) The Network also recommended a series of approaches to research in this ﬁeld, to try to improve the ability in future to draw reliable conclusions about what works in what circumstances: • Work towards producing a standardised deﬁnition of fear of crime, which all researchers should be encouraged to utilise. • Develop a broad template for evaluating future initiatives to reduce fear of crime so that evaluations can be compared with each other.