Cryptography: A Very Short Introduction by Fred Piper, Sean Murphy

By Fred Piper, Sean Murphy

This ebook is a transparent and informative creation to cryptography and information protection--subjects of substantial social and political value. It explains what algorithms do, how they're used, the hazards linked to utilizing them, and why governments will be involved.

Important components are highlighted, resembling movement Ciphers, block ciphers, public key algorithms, electronic signatures, and purposes similar to e-commerce.

This e-book highlights the explosive impression of cryptography on glossy society, with, for instance, the evolution of the web and the advent of extra refined banking equipment.

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Additional info for Cryptography: A Very Short Introduction

Sample text

So, for example, encryption with shift 8 is the same as decryption with shift 26 − 8 = 18. This enables us to use the same rule for encryption and decryption with the decryption key 18 corresponding to the encryption key 8. We have already mentioned exhaustive key searches and clearly, since there are only 26 keys, Caesar Ciphers are vulnerable to this type of attack. Before we give an example we must point out another of their weaknesses. The key can be determined from knowledge of 20 a single pair of corresponding plaintext and ciphertext characters.

Other natural numbers are N = 7 (for the days of the week) and N = 2 (for odd and even). If two numbers have the same remainder on division by N, we regard them as being equal modulo N. For example, if N = 7, then, 49 Historical algorithms The term bit is a contraction of binary digit. When we refer to an nbit number, we mean that its binary form requires n bits. Thus, in the above examples, 53 is a 6-bit number and 86 is a 7-bit number. 32d gives some idea of the number of bits needed to express d decimal digits in binary.

N-1. Cryptography As an illustration of the use of modular arithmetic, suppose that the first day of a month is on a Tuesday. Then clearly the 2nd will be a Wednesday, the 3rd a Thursday, and so on. What about the 29th? One way of answering the question is to consult a calendar or to write out the days for the complete month. Another is to observe that the pattern of days repeats every 7 days. So, clearly, the 8th day is also a Tuesday. Now we note that 29 = 4 × 7 + 1 which, using the notation above, says 29 = 1 (mod 7).

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