By Martin Kleppmann
This ebook examines the main rules, algorithms, and trade-offs of information platforms, utilizing the internals of varied well known software program programs and frameworks as examples. You’ll methods to be sure what sort of instrument is acceptable for which function, and the way sure instruments will be mixed to shape the basis of an excellent program structure. You’ll the right way to enhance an instinct for what your platforms are doing, in order that you’re greater capable of tune down any difficulties that come up. utilizing enormous quantities of illustrations and a sublime intuitive modeling language, the authors current a technique that totally exploits the conceptual modeling method of software program engineering, from thought to program. Readers will study not just easy methods to harness the layout applied sciences of relational databases to be used on the net, but additionally find out how to remodel their conceptual designs of data-intensive internet functions into powerful software program elements.
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Extra info for Designing Data-Intensive Applications: The Big Ideas Behind Reliable, Scalable, and Maintainable Systems
Graph queries in SQL Example 2-2 suggested that graph data can be represented in a relational database. But if we put graph data in a relational structure, can we also query it using SQL? The answer is: yes, but with some difficulty. In a relational database, you usually know in advance which joins you need in your query. e. the number of joins is not fixed in advance. ]-> () rule in the Cypher query. A person’s LIVES_IN edge may point at any kind of location: a street, a city, a district, a region, a state, etc.
It is like the * operator in a regular expression. This idea of variable-length traversal paths in a query can be expressed since SQL:1999 using something called recursive common table expressions (the WITH RECURSIVE syntax). Example 2-5 shows the same query—finding the names of people who emigrated from the US to Europe—expressed in SQL using this technique (supported in PostgreSQL, IBM DB2, Oracle and SQL Server). However, the syntax is very clumsy by comparison to Cypher. Example 2-5. The same query as Example 2-4, expressed in SQL using recursive common table expressions.
47]] Oracle allows the same, using a feature called multi-table index cluster tables. [] The column-family concept in the Bigtable data model (used in Cassandra and HBase) has a similar purpose in managing locality. [] We will also see more on locality in Chapter 3. Convergence of document and relational databases Most relational database systems (other than MySQL) have supported XML since the mid-2000s. This includes functions to make local modifications to XML documents, and the 44 ability to index and query inside XML documents, which allows applications to use data models very similar to what they would do when using a document database.