Dynamik sozialer Praktiken: Simulation gemeinsamer by Solveig Hofmann

By Solveig Hofmann

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Ii) The concept of intention is nonetheless operative in that the agents in question are jointly committed to intending “as a body”. iii) Through the joint commitment each party is under an obligation to the others to conform to the shared intention, and the others have correlative entitlements to such conformity and hence entitlements to rebuke for non-conformity. iv) The obligations and entitlements in question inhere in the joint commitment itself. v) A shared intention provides a unique type of motivational source: it provides a single motivational source for the different agents, a source that is under the control of all the agents (the underlying joint commitment cannot be rescinded unilaterally).

In einem ersten Ansatz scheint es sinnvoll zu sein, die der Handlung vorausgehende Absicht als Summe der individuellen Absichten der einbezogenen Personen zu begreifen. Bei näherer Betrachtung des Ansatzes zeigt sich jedoch, dass dies zu Komplikationen führt. Handlungsabsichten von Individuen sind mentale Konstrukte, deren bloße Summierung nicht unbedingt ein sinnvolles Ganzes ergeben muss. In der gegenwärtigen philosophischen Diskussion stehen sich zwei Standpunkte gegenüber, die sich im Wesentlichen in der Beantwortung der Frage unterscheiden, ob es möglich ist, intentionale Einstellungen direkt auf Gemeinschaften zu beziehen.

Wenn gleichartige CSAs wiederholt ausgeführt werden, entsteht eine soziale Praxis. “Briefly, a collective social action is an action performed for a social reason, explicated as a shared we-attitude. A social practice is a repeated collective social action” (R. Tuomela 2003: 41). Diese kurze Beschreibung umfasst ein relativ weites Spektrum gesellschaftlicher Aktivitäten. So zählen regionale oder kulturelle Sitten und Gebräuche zu den sozialen Praktiken, wie in Bayern im Sommer in den Biergarten zu gehen, in Großbritannien und den Vereinigten Staaten an Thanksgiving Truthahn zu essen, oder dass Frauen in bestimmten Gebieten Deutschlands an Weiberfasching den Männern die Krawatten abschneiden.

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