By Richard Frucht
A modern research of the folk, cultures, and society in the areas that make up japanese Europe.
• Discusses the geography, background, political improvement, and economic climate of countries akin to Poland, Lithuania, Slovakia, Hungary, Serbia, Albania, and plenty of others
• comprises historic profiles of important humans reminiscent of Konstantin Päts and Lydia Koidula, cultural occasions similar to the track pageant, and key occasions reminiscent of the sinking of the ferry Estonia
• provides maps of the complete zone and every of the sixteen international locations, together with Latvia, Slovenia, Bulgaria, and Greece
• comprises discussions of jap ecu languages
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Extra info for Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture
Jewish immigrants especially revitalized trade with foreign countries. Colonization on the basis of German law changed Poland. After 966, individual immigrants—clerics, knights, and merchants—reshaped Polish elites. The German colonization, about 250,000 people strong, brought to Poland large groups of peasants and artisans and changed the entire society. A strong market, developing culture, growing Polish identity, and one ecclesiastical organization helped to reunite Poland. At the same time, outside threats from the Mongols, the Czechs, the Brandenburgians, and the Teutonic Order (which settled in Prussia in 1226), pushed Poland toward unification.
The nobles hoped that the new king, a son of a famous conqueror of the Cossacks, Jarema Wi]niowiecki, would be as brave as his father. Unfortunately, Micha√ Korybut proved to be completely incompetent. In 1672 the Commonwealth was defeated by the Turks, lost three provinces, and had to pay the sultan a yearly tribute. If the king had not died in 1673, the humiliated nobility would probably have forced him to abdicate. Portrait of Tadeusz Ko]ciuszko, veteran of the America Revolution and leader of the Polish National Insurrection in 1794.
This initiated a long series of Polish-Swedish conflicts in the seventeenth century. Sigismund’s uncompromising Catholicism shaped his policies. Most people in the eastern parts of the Commonwealth were of the Orthodox faith and considered the patriarch of Moscow to be their spiritual leader. Sigismund wanted to change this unfortunate situation. He was personally interested in the reunification of Christianity. Accordingly, the 1596 Union of Brest-Litovsk liquidated the Orthodox Church in Poland.