By Rob H. G. Jongman, Gloria Pungetti
The institution of ecological networks in Europe and greenways in the US has required software of the rules of panorama ecology to land use making plans. This e-book presents an intensive evaluate of modern advancements, combining theoretical options of panorama ecology with the perform of panorama making plans and administration. as well as organic and actual issues for biodiversity safety and recovery, equivalent assurance is given to cultural and aesthetic concerns illustrating how sustainable land use rules will be applied.
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Extra resources for Ecological Networks and Greenways: Concept, Design, Implementation
Even in plantation forests, management can cause isolation of the remnants of natural old growth forests within them (Harris 1984). Most natural and semi-natural habitat sites are remnants of a former natural area and the species in it are part of a metapopulation that has survived. Present landscapes are dominated by man-made dynamic habitats and the less dynamic habitats are small and isolated, as are the populations in them. Habitat isolation and habitat loss prevent natural species from developing viable populations, or let populations survive on different equilibrium levels (Hanski et al.
Also the trade in animal stock is international or continent-wide. If the market is not regulated the farmers in the less favoured regions will marginalise and eventually abandon their land. Both intensive and extensive land use are expressed in the landscape: the structure of the land, the size of the parcels and the area of natural and semi-natural vegetation that is still present. The pressure of economic competition in farming, forestry and urbanisation makes the land partly homogenised through the disappearance of regional differences in (semi-) natural features.
On all scales and for most species pathways do exist to link individuals and populations. Land use and nature changed dramatically in the nineteenth century. The land has been developed, parcels enlarged and land use intensiﬁed. Since the end of the nineteenth century nature conservation through national parks and nature reserves has been the prime tool to counteract decline of species and natural ecosystems. This was very important to preserve species and natural ecosystems. In that period the linkage between protected sites did not seem to be crucial.