By Dean J. Champion
From the Code of Hammurabi (1800 BC) to the current, Sentencing: A Reference guide follows the historic evolution of the method of felony punishment, then makes a speciality of the U.S. judicial process to teach how American sentencing legislation have replaced according to surges of alternative varieties of crime, or to different elements corresponding to legal overcrowding.
To support readers comprehend the complicated factor of felony sentencing, this informative quantity describes the main sentencing approaches utilized in American courts (determinate, indeterminate, guidelines-based, and mandatory), highlighting the advantages and flaws of every with well-documented instances and examples. assurance encompasses a diversity of contentious matters, together with the disproportionate software of the dying penalty, intercourse criminal legislation, punishing the addicted and the mentally ailing, and balancing punishment with rehabilitation.
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Extra info for Sentencing:
The presentence investigation report is an informational document prepared by a probation officer containing the following personal data about convicted offenders, the conviction offense(s), and other relevant data: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Name Address Prior record, including offenses and dates Date and place of birth Crime(s) or conviction offense and date of offense Offender’s version of conviction offense Offender’s employment history Offender’s known addiction to or dependency on drugs or alcohol or controlled substances of any kind Statutory penalties for the conviction offense Marital status Personal and family data Name of spouse and children, if any Educational history 26 Background and History 14.
28 Background and History The fourth function of federal PSIs regards parole. In jurisdictions in which parole boards determine an inmate’s early release potential, PSIs are often consulted as background data. Decisions about early release are often contingent upon the recommendation of the probation officer contained in the report. For instance, if the prospective parolee is a sex offender, it is important for the parole board to understand the likelihood that the parolee may reoffend. Finally, criminologists and others are interested in studying those sentenced to various terms of incarceration or probation.
Victim impact statements may also intensify sentencing disparities in certain jurisdictions with sentencing schemes that rely more heavily upon subjective judicial impressions, as opposed to those jurisdictions in which more objective sentencing criteria are used—such as mandatory sentencing procedures or guidelines-based sentencing schemes. Proponents of victim impact statements believe that such statements personalize the sentencing process by showing that real people were harmed by the criminal.