The History of Northern Africa (The Britannica Guide to

Alternately pointed out with both the international locations of the Mediterranean, these of the center East, or different African territories, the international locations of northern Africa occupy a different actual and historic position. After centuries of fielding quite a few overseas invaders, northern Africans have absorbed and co-opted Greek, Roman, and Arab peoples and traditions, between others. below the pervasive turmoil that has ensued after colonial rule and internecine war, readers will come across a zone of varied traditions that stands at a different crossroads among a number of very assorted worlds.

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The History of Northern Africa (The Britannica Guide to Africa)

Alternately pointed out with both the international locations of the Mediterranean, these of the center East, or different African territories, the international locations of northern Africa occupy a distinct actual and old position. After centuries of fielding numerous international invaders, northern Africans have absorbed and co-opted Greek, Roman, and Arab peoples and traditions, between others.

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48 The extension of this network into the western Indian Ocean principally involved trade between Aden and Cambay and, as such, commercial groups from Yemen and Indian vanya merchants from Gujerat were its most active participants. The Cambay dealers provided two crucial components of this system. The first was dyed cloth and glass beads which they themselves manufactured for trade. The second was the commercial link to eastern ports of call at Malacca and China which were the sources of the spices, jewels, silks, brocades, celadons, and porcelains which were in heavy demand in East African ports as well as in Europe at that time.

The basic language core from which Kiswahili emerged was Sabaki Bantu. From presently available linguistic studies, Sabaki Bantu first appeared somewhere around the Ruvu River in northern Tanzania and spread northwards, possibly as far as the Jubba River. 20 Eventually, several dialects (then societies) developed. Kiswahili appears to have been the first to evolve as a separate dialect and language, probably, according to Ehret, around AD 1000 or earlier - that is, roughly corresponding to the cultural developments described above.

Two types basically have been identified, the smaller 'tombstone' sort, and the generally larger and more elaborate pillar tomb. The latter type, as the name reveals, often was quite large, being several metres in length and width and having a pillar at its head which reached heights of 3 to 9 metres. The pillar itself could be of almost any configuration, but almost invariably it displayed at least one example of an imported ceramic or porcelain bowl. 58 As Revoil noted, they could be found almost everywhere.

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